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As of 2018 Henry Flagler is 83 years (age at death) years old. Flagler. Terrence was born on September 24th, 1964 in New York City. As the company grew, the owners decided to organize it as a stock corporation, a relatively new business structure. 4,875 Reviews #3 of 155 things to do in St. Augustine. However, before doing so he had to obtain a divorce from his second wife, who was still living in a New York asylum. Whitehall is now a museum honoring Flagler's life and Florida history. But in the aftermath of that battle, in 1879 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania indicted Flagler and Rockefeller on charges of monopolizing the oil trade, starting an avalanche of similar court proceedings in other states and making a national issue of Standard Oil's business practices. So he laid out a city across the lake and built homes, churches and government buildings, creating the city of West Palm Beach. Flagler was a ruthless negotiator. They named the company the Standard Oil Company, because they were attempting to stabilize and apply standards to the oil business. Flagler bought and combined the railroads to form the Florida East Coast Railway. Flagler was in a special position to make those deals due to his connections as a grain merchant. I wish I had the brains to think of it. Along the way, Flagler built additional hotels, establishing Flor… The visionary widow from Ohio bought hundreds of acres at what is now Downtown Miami, moved down on a barge, and eventually convinced railroad man Henry Flagler to extend his new railway to the Miami River by sending him an unusual package. It had become the richest, biggest, most feared business in the world, seemingly immune to the boom and bust of the business cycle, consistently racking up profits year after year. Control of the Flagler fortune largely passed into the hands of Mary Lily Kenan's family of sisters and brother, who survived into the 1960s. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. How Popular is the name Flagler? Both properties were immediately successful. The Rockefellers went on to become one of the most prominent families in the United States. These certificates became traded by speculators, thus creating the first oil-futures market which effectively set spot market prices from then on. [2], Flagler's second wife, the former Ida Alice Shourds, was declared insane by Flagler's friend Dr. Anderson in 1896 and was institutionalized on and off starting that year. After his first wife's death, Flagler developed a new business interest. He opened up service to Jacksonville, then Daytona. In exchange, the railroad would get large shipments of oil. Flagler lived to see the Key West railroad open in 1912. 2) Debate runs about the origin of this pen name. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler. But Highway 1, which connects the Florida Keys to the mainland utilizes many of the railroad's viaducts, bridges and roadbed. [citation needed], By 1905, Flagler decided that his Florida East Coast Railway should be extended from Biscayne Bay to Key West, a point 128 miles (206 km) past the end of the Florida peninsula. The city had changed since Flagler first visited it. 2. Flagler first came to St. Augustine in 1878 (to improve his first wife’s health) and he hated it! [13] Part of this scheme was the announcement of sharply increased freight charges. The Gale Group, 2000, http://www.galenet.com/servlet/BioRC(December 20, 2000). At the same time, he began to have an affair with Mary Lily Kenan; by 1899, newspapers began to openly question whether the two were having an affair. He recruited Henry Flagler to join him, and the youth went to Ohio at age 14, where he started work in 1844 at a salary of US$5 per month plus room and board. His next project was the Ponce de Leon Hotel, now part of Flagler College. She died in 1881. Flagler was also a pioneer in the development of Florida as a U.S. vacation center. The accommodations were poor, there was no entertainment, and the cities were populated with sick people. (b. [4] He was of paternal German descent from the Palatinate region. Flagler, who married Mary at the age of 71, was losing his hearing and his sight and suffered from a liver ailment. Convict leasing was ended in South Carolina (1897), Louisiana (1901), Mississippi(1907), Georgia (1908), Arkansas (1913) and in 1923 Florida finally followed suit. He also established many of the state's newspapers. From there, he became a developer in Florida and started the Florida East Coast Railway. Henry Morrison Flagler is a well known Business. By then the trust still had a 70% market share of the refined oil market but only 14% of the U.S. crude oil supply. In that spirit, he built the ornate Ponce de Leon Hotel on land that was once an orange grove. They walked to and from work together, discussing business along the way. "Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, Flagler, like many white industrialists across the South, leased African American convict labor from the state. He discovered that the state's poor transportation was deterring development. Julia DeForest Tuttle, the "Mother of Miami," is widely recognized as the only female founder of a major American city. [20][21] Standard countered and held back its shipments and, with the help of other railroads, started a price war that dramatically reduced freight payments and caused labor unrest as well. It was a grandson Solomon Flagler, who first used the different spelling of the surname. [67] After Flagler's death, she married an old friend, Robert Worth Bingham, who used an inheritance from her to buy the Louisville Courier-Journal newspaper. Incorporated: 1931 as Socony-Vacuum Corporation The Paris Rothschilds jumped into the fray providing financing. When convict labor proved insufficient to solve the South’s labor shortages, industrialists used another system of forced labor that targeted African Americans: debt peonage. By the end of the 1870s, Standard was refining over 90% of the oil in the U.S.[17], In 1877, Standard clashed with Thomas A. Scott the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, its chief hauler. For many of the competitors, Flagler and Rockefeller had merely to show them the books so they could see what they were up against and make them a decent offer. He discovered that the state's poor transportation was deterring development. [33], Standard Oil moved its headquarters to New York City, at 26 Broadway, and Flagler and Rockefeller became central figures in the city's business community. There is also a monument to him on Flagler Monument Island in Biscayne Bay in Miami; Flagler College and Flagler Hospital are named after him in St. Augustine. Henry explained: "We worked night and day, making good oil as cheaply as possible and selling it for all we could get. Although Jock’s highlights were many, here are my favorite five tidbits of knowledge he shared! Flagler originally intended West Palm Beach to be the terminus of his railroad system, but in 1894 and 1895, severe freezes hit the area, causing Flagler to reconsider. The National Petroleum Exchange opened in Manhattan in late 1882 to facilitate the oil futures trading. 12 Interesting Facts About Miami. [25] The firm was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence, in part for these monopolistic methods, giving momentum to the antitrust movement. When William was asked “What does ‘O’ stand for?”. He Henry Flagler. It was Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike. A week or two ago he attended “Flagler’s Age of Opulence,” which shared Henry’s Flagler’s impact on St. Augustine real estate. "Henry Morrison Flagler," Henry Morrison Flagler Museum, Palm Beach, Florida,http://www.flagler.org/bio.html(December 20, 2000). [22] The New York State Legislature's Hepburn Committee in 1879 conducted hearings in response to the complaints of local merchants that were not involved in the oil trade in order to investigate railroad rebate practices. [56], On August 24, 1901, 10 days after his divorce, Flagler married Mary Lily at her family's plantation, Liberty Hall, and the couple soon moved into their new Palm Beach estate, Whitehall, a 55-room beaux arts home designed by the New York-based firm of Carrère and Hastings, which also had designed the New York Public Library and the Pan-American Exposition. John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937), American industrialist and philanthropist, founded the Standard Oil Company, the Unive…, 3225 Gallows Road https://insights.ehotelier.com/insights/2016/05/16/industry-icons- They conceived a plan to compete against other refineries. The Alcazar is today the Lightner Museum, next to the Casa Monica Hotel in St. Augustine that Flagler bought from Franklin W. Smith. Standard Oil grew to become one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country. After completing the divorce proceedings, Flagler married Mary Lily Kenan, a socially prominent North Carolinian, who was 37 years his junior. Encyclopedia of World Biography. In 1887, Congress created the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was tasked with enforcing equal rates for all railroad freight, but by then Standard depended more on pipeline transport. Standard was doing more and more business in New York, and Flagler traveled between Cleveland and New York frequently. Flagler earned $5 a month, plus room and board. Two years after being widowed, Flagler married Ida Alice Shourd, his late wife's nurse. [citation needed], The Overseas Railroad, also known as the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railway, was heavily damaged and partially destroyed in the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. He was most active from 1987 to 1991. capitalist, philanthropist Born: 1/2/1830 Birthplace: Hopewell, N.Y. After modest success in the grain business, in 1865 he joined John D. Rockefeller in the oil business in a firm called Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler (became Standard Oil in 1870). [citation needed], Flagler and Rockefeller began a publicity campaign to put the company and themselves in a better light. 50 Most Interesting facts About O Henry You should know. Flagler believed that he had learned a valuable lesson: invest in a business only after thorough investigation. [47], When Flagler's first wife Mary (née Harkness) fell sick, his physician recommended they travel to Jacksonville for the winter to escape the brutal conditions of the North. Henry Flagler was a Capricorn and was born in the G.I. Tour full of interesting facts - Flagler College. Flagler found the city charming, but the hotel facilities and transportation systems inadequate. 91 is preserved inside a Beaux Arts pavilion built to look like a 19th-century railway palace. The experience in Saginaw was humiliating for Flagler. In the meantime, his friend Rockefeller had gotten into the oil business. Sanitary conditions were widely deplorable and medical attention scant. He opened one of the most famous hotels, Ponce de Leon, that hosted presidents and other peoples of high standings. Also, convict leasing did exist and took a long time to end in Florida. Flagler spent the rest of his life developing land in Florida. But in February 2014 the college's vice president of enrollment … "[26], At that time, many legislatures had made it difficult to incorporate in one state and operate in another. Henry Flagler was born in NY. [43] The history of American oil refining begins with Henry Morrison Flagler, and his business associate and friend, John D. Rockefeller, as they built the biggest, most prosperous and monopolizing oil empire of their time: Standard Oil. By 1849, Flagler was promoted to the sales staff at a salary of $40 per month. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Public Company Flagler completed the 1,100-room Royal Poinciana Hotel on the shores of Lake Worth in Palm Beach and extended his railroad to its service town, West Palm Beach, by 1894, founding Palm Beach and West Palm Beach. Incorporated: 1899 as St. Petersburg Electric Light & Power Company (October 16, 2020). Two years after his first wife died in 1881, he married again. □. He discovered that the state's poor transportation was deterring development. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler, "Henry Flagler Generation. Most of his donations were made anonymously. January 2, 1830 (age 83) Birthplace . In 1959, Flagler's granddaughter bought the mansion, restored it and opened it as a museum. [61] In the 1900's Florida's population was just 528,000 so with the demand for laborers across the south and the shortage of jobs in the north, workers needing jobs were drawn to the south. The tour of what was the Hotel Ponce de Leon Hotel built by Henry Flagler is definitely worth taking. Rockefeller. Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, first based in Ohio. Flagler's cousin, Stephen Harkness, invested in the company with the understanding that Flagler be made a partner. Chains, hounds, whips, sweat boxes, stringing up by the thumbs — these were part of everyday existence in convict camps. [15] Eventually, even former antagonists Pratt and Rogers saw the futility of continuing to compete against Standard Oil: in 1874, they made a secret agreement with their old nemesis to be acquired. Leaving the day-to-day operations to Rockefeller, he focused his own efforts on Florida, building the Florida East Coast Railway from … Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ... (Julia Tuttle, called the “Mother of Miami”). Sixty miles (97 km) south, the area today known as Miami was reportedly unharmed by the freeze. . Chandler, David Leon, Henry Flagler: the Astonishing Life and Times of the Visionary Robber Baron Who Founded Florida, Macmillan, 1986. 21 May 1898 in New York City; d. 10 December 1990 in Los Angeles, California), controversial twentieth-century indu…, Henry II (Holy Roman emperor and German king), Henry Morton Stanley Circumnavigates Africa's Lake Victoria and Explores the Entire Length of the Congo River, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler. In any case large and varied labor force was required in order to provide top quality services and keep the Royal Poinciana in excellent condition. Flagler was devoted to her and read to her every night when he returned home from work. When he was 23, Flagler married Mary Harkness, a frail, 20-year-old cousin of Dan Harkness. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. American financier Henry M. Flagler partnered with John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in establishing the Standard Oil Company. Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, first based in Ohio. Along the way, Flagler built additional hotels, establishing Florida's east coast cities as tourist destinations. The average laborer in 1905 earned $390 a year and surgeons averaged $1625 a year. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Built on a Legacy Flagler College celebrates over 50 years of providing a rich, comprehensive liberal arts education in a small, supportive environment. [36] Although her work prompted a huge backlash against the company, Tarbell claims to have been surprised at its magnitude. It is a timeless corner of the tropics where some of America’s most influential families came to play 120 years ago. Standard Oil extended its railroad agreements to more railroads and different regions of the country. Encyclopedia.com. In 1901, U.S. Steel, now controlled by J. Pierpont Morgan, having bought Andrew Carnegie's steel assets, offered to buy Standard's iron interests as well. It developed over 300 oil-based products from tar to paint to Vaseline petroleum jelly to chewing gum. [55] A spouse's mental incapacity was later restored by the legislature as a grounds for dissolution of marriage, and remains the law of Florida today. [43] Standard Oil's combined assets equalled approximately $42,882,650 (equivalent to $1.22 billion in 2019[8]) in Indiana, Kentucky, New Jersey, New York and Ohio. The Flaglers returned to New York, where his wife's condition deteriorated. After Flagler built a railroad bridge onto the island, wealthy people traveled down in private railcars for parties, golf, tennis, boating, bathing and fishing. Flagler and Rockefeller saw themselves as the industry's saviors, "an angel of mercy" absorbing the weak and making the industry as a whole stronger, more efficient, and more competitive. Flagler purchased land in St. Augustine from a friend and built the grandest hotel in the world, the Ponce de Leon. Flagler County, Florida, Flagler Beach, Florida and Flagler, Colorado are also named for him. In less than four months in 1872, in what was later known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "The Cleveland Massacre", Standard Oil had absorbed 22 of its 26 Cleveland competitors. Art and antique furnishings are displayed at the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum, inside the hotel and railroad tycoon’s huge Gilded Age mansion. Rather than try to influence the price of crude oil directly, Standard Oil had been exercising indirect control by altering oil storage charges to suit market conditions. Flagler and Rockefeller eventually prevailed and the railroad sold all its oil interests to Standard. Sales: $2.01 billion Henry Morrison Flagler was born on January 2, 1830, in Hopewell, New York. The couple traveled to Jacksonville and St. Augustine. To accommodate the workers who built the hotels, Flagler established a community of tents and shacks called "the Styx" on the island. He is known as the father of Miami and Palm Beach, Florida. If they refused the offer, Flagler and Rockefeller told them they would run them into bankruptcy and then cheaply buy up their assets at auction. Pratt and Rogers became Flagler and Rockefeller's partners. At last in 1911, the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil Company of New Jersey in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The railroads running along the state's East Coast were not compatible. Fun facts: before fame, family life, popularity rankings, and more. Farming in Dade County has always been … He found that salt mining required more technical knowledge than he had and struggled in the industry during the Civil War. By 1869, Cleveland was the second largest refinery city, behind New York City. Isaac was an itinerant Presbyterian minister who settled in Toledo, Ohio, in 1836. [6], After the failure of his salt business in Saginaw, Flagler returned to Bellevue in 1866 and reentered the grain business as a commission merchant with the Harkness Grain Company. The convict lease system in Florida was especially violent. Flagler spent the rest of his life developing land in Florida. Public Company Flagler's wheat and wine weres sold in Cleveland through a commission agent named John D. Rockefeller, who became a friend. Convicts extended his Florida East Coast Railway (FECR) from West Palm Beach to Miami, cleared the land for his Royal Palm Hotel in Miami and graded the rail lines running from the mainland to his FECR extension across the Keys... Flagler and Florida were not aberrations. In the kerosene industry, Standard Oil replaced the old distribution system with its own vertical system. Two years later, he expanded his Florida holdings. He opened up service to Jacksonville, then Daytona. These are the best facts for Henry Flagler, collected by our users from the web: (You can find the source through the icon at the end of each fact). "[37], Flagler and Rockefeller continued to consolidate their oil interests as best they could until New Jersey, in 1909, changed its incorporation laws to effectively allow a re-creation of the trust in the form of a single holding company. By 1880, according to the New York World, Standard Oil was "the most cruel, impudent, pitiless, and grasping monopoly that ever fastened upon a country. Capturing the essence of Old Europe, the Spanish Revival-style building adorned with Moorish Revival architectural elements was designed by John Carrere and Thomas Hastings. Flagler encouraged fruit farming and settlement along his railway line and made many gifts to build hospitals, churches and schools in Florida. Together David and Elizabeth had a son Daniel M. Harkness before his death. Even though congressional investigations found no immigrant peonage at F.E.C., it is clear that the life of a common day laborer throughout the U.S. at that time was very difficult across all industries including mining, textiles, manufacturing, railroad and construction. [citation needed], When looking back at Flagler's life, after Flagler's death, George W. Perkins, of J.P. Morgan & Co., reflected, "But that any man could have the genius to see of what this wilderness of waterless sand and underbrush was capable and then have the nerve to build a railroad here, is more marvelous than similar development anywhere else in the world. But Standard Oil adapted, developing its own European presence, expanding into natural gas production in the U.S., then into gasoline for automobiles, which until then had been considered a waste product. Philanthropist Purchase the … Henry M. Flagler was a founder of the Florida East Coast Railroad and also of standard oil. Lewis was related to Henry Flagler through his mother, Louise Wise Lewis Francis, who was the niece of Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, who married Henry Flagler in 1901 making him Lewis' great uncle. [64], Flagler was entombed in the Flagler family mausoleum at Memorial Presbyterian Church in St. Augustine alongside his first wife, Mary Harkness; daughter, Jenny Louise; and granddaughter, Marjorie. Rockefeller, John D. This touched off a firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including boycotts and vandalism, which eventually led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part in the deal. Miami is a subtropical city located in sunshine state Florida in between the Everglades and North Atlantic Ocean. During this time he worked to pay back his stepbrother Stephen Harkness. As in most things, the truth lies somewhere in between the opposite ends of the discussion. Several years later, in 1870, their only son, Henry Harkness Flagler, was born. [citation needed], Flagler's third wife, Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, was born in North Carolina; the top-ranked Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is named for Flagler and his wife, who was an early benefactor of UNC along with her family and descendants. The company collapsed when the war undercut commercial demand for salt. They lived near each other and shared an office. Standard Oil had gained an aura of invincibility, always prevailing against competitors, critics, and political enemies. . Through this business, Flagler became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, who worked as a commission agent with Hewitt and Tuttle for the Harkness Grain Company. When asked by the president of Rollins College in Winter Park about his philanthropic efforts, Flagler reportedly replied, "I believe this state is the easiest place for many men to gain a living. Flagler … "[29] Over time foreign competition and new finds abroad eroded his dominance. Escaped peons were often arrested for vagrancy and leased out as convicts. Flagler and Rockefeller finally gave up their dream of controlling all the world's oil refining. "I never had an animus against their size and wealth, never objected to their corporate form. Rockefeller worked in association with chemist and inventor Samuel Andrews. Workers encountered mosquitoes, quicksand lakes and hurricanes during construction. The Town of Palm Beach is a place where the extraordinary is commonplace. The couple had two daughters, Jennie Louise, born in 1855, and Carrie, born in 1858. Employees: 7,879 The same labor practices that forced African Americans into brutal work conditions ensnared immigrant workers, too. Hopewell ... Henry Flagler Spouse: Mary Lily Kenan (m. 1901–1913), Ida Alice Shourds Flagler (m. 1883–1901), Mary Harkness Flagler (m. 1853–1881) ⚰ … [3] The Royal Poinciana Hotel was at the time the largest wooden structure in the world. When the city was incorporated in 1896, its citizens wanted to honor the man responsible for its growth by naming it "Flagler". It was named for Henry Morrison Flagler , a famous railroad builder who built the Florida East Coast Railway . Flagler County, in Florida, United States, was created in 1917. In 1838, Flagler's parents separated and Elizabeth, Henry and a younger sister moved to Rock Hill, New York. It was the first of the island's mansions, costing $3 million. Flagler became restless with his distillery and grain business and, in 1863, he moved to Saginaw, Michigan, where he invested in the salt industry. In the early 1880s, Flagler and Rockefeller created one of their most important innovations. [29] In spite of the formation of the trust and its perceived immunity from all competition, by the 1880s Standard Oil had passed its peak of power over the world oil market. [10] By 1872, it led the American oil refining industry, producing 10,000 barrels per day (1,600 m3/d). With the exception of a few coastal towns, the rest of Florida was essentially an uninhabited wilderness. Fax: (703) 846-4669 Pennzoil and Chevron have remained separate companies. Customers often reused the barrels and they were very popular. "1892-A Year of Crucial Decisions in Florida", This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 10:27. Flagler worked with Northern labor agencies to lure new immigrants with false promises of paradise. Entrepreneur Born in New York #47. Such incentive led to the development of Miami, which was an unincorporated area at the time. In 1885, Standard Oil moved its corporate headquarters to New York City to the iconic 26 Broadway location. These included, among many others, Continental Oil, which became Conoco, now part of ConocoPhillips; Standard of Indiana, which became Amoco, now part of BP; Standard of California, which became Chevron; Standard of New Jersey, which became Esso (and later, Exxon), now part of ExxonMobil; Standard of New York, which became Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil; and Standard of Ohio, which became Sohio, now part of BP. With convict labor 1,600 m3/d ) Florida and started the Florida Overseas railroad was destroyed in a merchant. Years of age did exist and took America by storm http: //www.galenet.com/servlet/BioRC ( December 20 2000! 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